By Jacques Derrida

"The English model of Dissemination [is] an capable translation by way of Barbara Johnson . . . . Derrida's significant rivalry is that language is haunted via dispersal, absence, loss, the danger of unmeaning, a chance that is starkly embodied in all writing. the excellence among philosophy and literature consequently turns into of secondary significance. Philosophy vainly makes an attempt to manage the irrecoverable dissemination of its personal which means, it strives—against the grain of language—to supply a sober revelation of fact. Literature—on the opposite hand—flaunts its personal meretriciousness, abandons itself to the Dionysiac play of language. In Dissemination—more than any earlier work—Derrida joins within the revelry, weaving a posh development of puns, verbal echoes and allusions, meant to 'deconstruct' either the pretension of feedback to inform the reality approximately literature, and the pretension of philosophy to the literature of truth."—Peter Dews, New Statesman

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For speech limited the soul, persuading it which it persuaded, either to think the issues stated and to approve the issues performed. The persuader, like a constrainer, does the incorrect and the persuaded, just like the limited, in speech is improperly charged. )o Persuasive eloquence (peithii) is the ability to wreck in, to hold off, to seduce internally, to ravish invisibly. it really is furtive strength in step with se. yet in exhibiting that Helen gave in to the violence of speech (would she have yielded to a letter? ), in disculpating this sufferer, Gorgias indicts trademarks in its skill to lie. "By introducing a few reasoning (logismon) into speech (toi logoz)," he needs "to loose the accused of blame and, having reproved her detractors as prevaricators and proved the reality, to unfastened her from their lack of information. " yet earlier than being reined in and tamed by means of the kosmos and order of fact, emblems is a wild creature, an ambiguous animaliry. Its magical "pharmaceutical" strength derives from this ambivalence, and is the reason the disproportion among the energy of that strength and the inconsiderable factor speech seems: but when it used to be speech which persuaded her and deceived her middle, no longer even to this is often it tough to make a solution and to banish blame as follows. Speech is a robust lord, which through the best and so much invisible physique results the divinest phrases: it will probably cease worry and banish grief and create pleasure and nurture pity. Such persuasion getting into the soul via speech is certainly aphannakon, and that's accurately what Gorgias calls it: The impression of speech (toulogou dunamis) upon the situation of the soul (pros tin tis psuchis taxin) is analogous (ton auton de logon) to the ability of substances (ton phannakon taxis) over the character of our bodies (tin ton somaton phusin). For simply as diversified medicinal drugs dispel varied secretions from the physique, and a few deliver an finish to affliction and others to lifestyles, so additionally relating to speeches, a few misery, others pride, a few reason worry, others make the hearers daring, and a few drug and bewitch the soul with one of those evil persuasion (tin psuchin ephannakeusan kai exegoiteusan). 50. [English translation by means of George Kennedy, within the 0/rkr Sophim, ed. R. ok. Sprague (Columbia, S. C. : college of South Carolina Press, 1972), pp. 50-54. ] in this passage of the Encomi11m, at the kinfolk of the/go and ptithO, of appeal and persuasion, on their use in Homer, Aeschylus, and Plato, see Dies, pp. 116-17. THE PHARMAK EUS 117 The reader may have paused to mirror that the relation (the analogy) among the logos/soul relation and the pharmakonlbody relation is itself unique by means of the time period trademarks. The identify of the relation is equal to that of 1 of its phrases. The phannakon is comprehended within the constitution of emblems. This comprehension is an act of either domination and determination. five. The Pharmakeus For if chere have been noching any further co hurc us, we must always don't have any desire whacever of any assiscance. And chus you spot ic may chen be made appacenc chac ic was once simply on accounc of evil chac we felc regard and affeccion for strong (lagathon), as we thought of stable co be a medication Cpharmakon) for evil, and evil co be a disorder.

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