How We Live and Why We Die: The Secret Lives of Cells

Acclaimed biologist Lewis Wolpert eloquently narrates the fundamentals of human existence throughout the lens of its smallest part: the cell.

every little thing approximately our existence-movement and reminiscence, mind's eye and replica, delivery, and eventually death-is ruled via our cells. they're the foundation of all lifestyles within the universe, from micro organism to the main advanced animals. within the culture of the vintage Lives of a Cell, yet with the good thing about the most recent learn, Lewis Wolpert demonstrates how human existence grows from a unmarried phone right into a physique, an exceptionally advanced society of billions of cells. Wolpert is going directly to learn the technology in the back of themes which are a lot mentioned yet hardly understood―stem-cell examine, cloning, DNA, cancer―and explains how all lifestyles on the earth developed from only one mobilephone. vigorous and passionate, this can be an available advisor to realizing the human physique and existence itself.

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Index abortion 1, 2 actin 1, 2, three acupuncture 1, 2 adaptive immune method 1, 2, three, four, five adenine 1 adenosine triphosphate see ATP adhesion molecules 1, 2 adrenaline 1 age-related problems 1, 2 see additionally Alzheimer’s disorder; Parkinson’s sickness growing older technique 1, 2 aggregates 1, 2 AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) virus 1, 2, three, four alimentary tract 1 substitute drugs 1 Alzheimer, Alois 1 Alzheimer’s ailment 1, 2, three, four, five amino acids 1, 2, three, four in mobile replication 1, 2 beginning 1 sequencing 1, 2 amoebae 1 anaemia 1, 2 Angelman syndrome 1 animalcules 1 antibiotics 1 antibodies 1, 2 antigens 1, 2 antiviral medicinal drugs 1 apoptosis 1, 2, three and mobile harm 1 and limbs 1 and nerves 1 and T cells 1 appendicitis 1 Aquinas, Thomas 1 Archimedes 1 Aristotle 1, 2, three hands 1, 2 arteries 1, 2, three, four arthritis 1, 2 asters 1, 2 bronchial asthma 1, 2 atherosclerosis 1, 2 ATP (adenosine triphosphate) 1, 2, three, four mitochondria 1 muscle 1 neurotransmitter 1 sodium pump 1 Augustine, St 1 autoimmune illnesses 1, 2, three axons 1, 2, three, four optic nerve 1 Ayurvedic medication 1 B lymphocytes (B cells) 1 micro organism 1,, 2 and physically defences 1, 2, three, four, experiments with 1, 2 first photo 1 origins of existence 1 resistance to medicines 1 spontaneous new release 1 Barker, David 1 Bateson, William 1 Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome 1 Beneden, Edouard van 1, 2 Bible 1, 2, three bipolar illness 1 delivery weight, low 1 Black loss of life (plague) 1 bleeding 1, 2 blindness 1, 2 blood 1 bleeding (as remedy) 1 first cells 1 stem cells 1 see additionally pink blood cells; white blood cells blood-clotting 1, 2, three blood strain 1 blood vessels 1, 2 constriction of one harm to one, 2 improvement of one leaky 1 bone 1 sickness 1 development 1 therapeutic 1 stem cells 1 bone marrow 1, 2, three Bonnet, Charles 1 Boveri, Theodor 1 mind 1, 2, three and growing old method 1 Alzheimer’s 1 improvement of one, 2, three mind tumours 1 BRCA-1 gene 1 breast melanoma 1, 2, three breast milk 1 Brenner, Sydney 1 Brown, Robert 1 BSE (‘mad cow disease’) flow 1, 2, three bubonic plague 1 Burkitt, Denis 1 Burkitts lymphoma 1 burns 1, 2, three Burnstock, Geoffrey 1 calcium fertilisation 1 muscle 1 calorie consumption, limited 1 melanoma 1, 2, three, four apoptosis 1 therapy 1 cannibalistic altruism 1 capillaries 1, 2, three carbohydrates 1, 2 carbon dioxide 1, 2, three heart problems 1 cartilage 1 arthritis 1 development 1, 2 therapeutic 1 catalysts 1 see additionally enzymes mobilephone membranes 1, 2 nerves 1 telephone sheets 1, 2, three, four cells growing older 1 lifeless 1, 2, three differentiation 1, 2, discovery 1 development 1, 2, three, four positional values 1, 2, three form 1 see additionally apoptosis, blood, bone, melanoma, cartilage, phone department, nerves, stem cells mobile department 1, 2, three growing old 1 cycle 1, 2 discovery 1 imperative worried approach 1, 2 cervical melanoma 1, 2 chaperones 1 chemical bonds 1, 2 chemotherapy 1 chi 1 chick embryos limb improvement 1 Malpighi 1 chills 1 chimaeras stem cells 1 China 1 cholera 1 ldl cholesterol 1 chromosome 1, 2 cellphone department 1 discovery 1, 2 DNA 1, 2, three intercourse 1, 2 cilia 1, 2, three, four, five circadian 24-hour clock 1 circulatory procedure 1, 2 harm 1 improvement 1 see additionally arteries, blood vessels, veins clays 1, 2 cleavage 1 clitoris 1 cloning 1, 2, three, four clotting of blood 1 coding area of gene 1 coding areas 1 coding triplets 1, 2 chilly (viral an infection) 1, 2 collagen 1 colon melanoma 1 color imaginative and prescient 1 coma 1 complementary medication 1 compound microscopes 1, 2 pcs 1, 2 conditioning, classical 1 cones 1, 2 Conferva plant 1 connective tissue 1, 2, three cognizance 1, 2 keep an eye on of genes 1, 2, three, four, five Crick, Francis 1, 2, three DNA 1, 2 illegal activity 1, 2 criminals, identity via DNA 1, 2 crystal therapeutic 1 cyclins 1, 2 cystic fibrosis 1, 2, three, four cytoplasm 1, 2, three protein synthesis 1, 2 improvement 1 cytosine 1 Darwin, Charles 1, 2 dauer larva 1 Dawkins, Richard 1 de Vries, Hugo 1 dying 1, infections 1, 2 dementia 1, 2 see additionally Alzheimer’s disorder dendrites 1, 2, three melancholy 1, 2, three diabetes 1, 2, three, four, five diarrhoea 1 diffusion mechanisms 1 digestion 1, 2, three digits, additional 1 affliction 1, 2 diphtheria 1 genetic 1, 2 German measles 1 humours 1 weight problems 1 outdated age 1 pneumonia 1, disposable physique conception 1 DNA 1, 2, three, four, five growing old 1, 2 melanoma 1, 2 phone replication 1, 2 early discoveries 1, 2 meiosis 1 protein encoding 1, 2 constitution of one, 2, three virus 1 Dolly the sheep 1 dopamine 1, 2, three Down’s syndrome 1 Driesch, Hans 1 Drosophila melanogaster (fruitfly) 1, 2, three growing old 1 Dumortier, Henri 1, 2 Dutrochet, René 1 Duve, Christian de 1 ectoderm 1, 2 egg construction, hormonally precipitated 1 egg yolk 1 eggs 1, 2, three, four, five, 6 discovery 1 fertilized 1, 2, three, human 1, 2, three Egypt, old 1 ejaculation 1 electric impulses 1, 2, three electron microscope 1, 2, three Empedocles 1 endoderm 1 endoplasmic reticula 1, 2, three strength see ATP enzymes 1, 2, three, apoptosis 1 first 1 infectious brokers 1 dermis 1, 2 epigenesis 1 epithelial cells 1 Epstein-Barr virus 1 Epstein, Tony 1 Escherichia coli 1 moral concerns 1, 2, three Euclid 1 evolution 1, 2, three reason and influence 1 melanoma 1 mutations 1, exons 1, 2 eyes 1, 2, improvement of nerves 1 face 1, 2 facial popularity 1 religion therapeutic 1 fasting 1 fats cells 1, 2, three fatigue 1, 2 fat 1, 2, three, four, fertilisation 1, 2, three fever 1, 2, three fibroblasts 1, 2 bone therapeutic 1 prostate 1 filaments 1, 2, three, four, five circulation 1, 2 filopodia 1 fish 1 flat worms 1 fleas 1 Fleming, Alexander 1 flies 1, 2, three see additionally fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster) Florey, Howard 1 flu epidemic (1918) 1 flu virus 1 follicular method 1 nutrients 1, 2 growing old 1 micro organism 1 strength 1 weight problems 1 international our bodies 1, 2, three origin on monetary developments 1 French flag version of development formation 1 frogs 1 cloning 1 observe of cells 1 regeneration 1 fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster) 1, 2 aging 1 Hox genes 1 patterning 1 similarity to vertebrate genes 1 Galileo 1 Galton, Francis 1 gangrene 1 gastrulation 1, 2, three gender variations 1, 2, three gene treatment 1 genes 1, 2, three, four, five, 6 replacement splicng 1 cloning 1 improvement 1 discovery 1 DNA 1 evolution 1 imprinting 1 transcription elements 1 genetic ailments 1, 2, three genetic mutations 1, 2, three genital areas 1, 2, three genome, human 1, 2, three germ cells 1, 2, three German measles 1 glia 1 globuls 1 glucose 1 melanoma 1 diabetes 1, 2 strength 1 insulin 1, 2 God 1, 2, three, four Golgi 1 Golgi equipment 1 Golgi, Camillo 1 gonads 1 gout 1 ‘Grand Unified idea’ (Hooke) 1 Greeks, old 1 Prometheus fable 1 Tithonus fable 1 eco-friendly alga 1 Griffiths, Fred 1 development 1, 2 mind 1 imprinting 1 limbs 1 progress hormones 1, 2 development plates 1 guanine 1 intestine 1, 2 micro organism 1, 2 melanoma 1, 2 cholera 1 endoderm 1 enzymes 1 stem cells 1 ulcers 1 habituation 1 haemoglobin 1, 2 anaemia 1 mutation 1, 2, three hairs 1, 2, three handedness 1 arms 1, 2 handwriting acceptance 1 head 1 head-to-tail axis 1, 2 complications 1 therapeutic 1, 2 listening to 1, 2 center 1, 2, three, four assault 1, 2 ailment 1, 2, three, four, five, 6 failure 1 transplants 1 HeLa cells 1 heredity 1, 2 herpes virus 1 hippocampus 1 Hippocrates 1, 2 His, Wilhelm 1 HIV 1 homeotic mutations 1 homosexuality 1, 2 Hooke, Robert 1 hormones 1, 2, three, four, five testosterone 1, 2, three house-keeping genes 1, 2 Hox genes 1, 2 Human Embryology and Fertilisation Authority (UK) 1 humerus 1 humours, idea of one starvation 1 Huntington’s disorder 1 hydra 1, 2 hydrogen 1, 2, three, four exact twins 1, 2 identikit pictures 1 ‘immortal’ cellphone traces 1 immune rejection 1, 2, three immune approach 1, 2, three melanoma 1 stem cells 1 immunological reminiscence 1 impotence 1 imprinting 1 incontinence, bladder 1 infertility, male 1 irritation 1, 2 melanoma 1 inflammatory bowel disorder 1, 2 influenza virus 1 inheritance 1, 2 innate immune procedure 1, 2, three insulin 1, 2 getting old 1 diabetes 1, 2 exchanging cells 1 sugar delivery 1 insulin-like development components 1 insulin-resistant cells 1 intelligence, human 1, 2 interferon 1 intestinal melanoma 1 intestines 1, 2 introns 1 involuntary soft muscle 1 ions 1, 2 hydrogen 1 sodium 1, 2 iron deficiency 1 itching 1 IVF (in vitro fertilisation) 1, 2 J gene segments 1 Johannsen, Wilhelm 1 joints 1 Kepler 1 keratin 1, 2 keratinocytes, outer dermis cells 1 ki 1 kidneys 1 diabetes 1 endoderm 1 killer T cells 1 kinetic power 1 Klinefelter syndrone 1 knee-jerk reflex 1 Koch, Robert 1 Lack, Henrietta 1 Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste 1 Lamarckian inheritance 1 language 1, 2 studying 1, 2 studying disabilities 1, 2 Leeuwenhoek, Anton van 1 left/right handedness 1 lenses 1, 2 leprosy 1 leptin 1 leukaemia 1, 2, three leukocytes 1 lifestyles strength 1 lifespan 1, 2 light-absorbing pigments 1 light-sensitive cells 1 limbs 1 improvement 1 progress 1 dimension at delivery 1 lipids 1 membrane formation 1 liver 1 asymmetry 1 ldl cholesterol 1 endoderm 1 regeneration 1 long term reminiscence 1 durability 1 lungs melanoma 1, 2 cilia 1 cystic fibrosis 1 emboli 1 endoderm 1 stem cells 1 tuberculosis 1 lymph nodes 1 lymphatic method 1 lymphocytes 1, 2, three lysine 1 lysosomes 1 lysozyme 1 macrophages 1, 2, three, four, five arthritis 1 melanoma 1 ‘mad cow affliction’ (BSE) 1 major physique axis 1 malaria 1, 2 Malpighi, Marcello 1 Marcus Aurelius 1 marine slug (Aplysia) 1 Mars, lifestyles on 1 mast cells 1, 2 McCulloch, Ernest 1 McLaren, Anne 1 measles 1 meiosis 1, 2, three cancer 1 membranes 1, 2, three electric power 1, 2 sodium pump 1, 2 constitution 1, 2 reminiscence 1, 2, three, four Mendel, Gregor 1, 2 menstrual cycle 1 psychological sickness 1 psychological retardation 1, 2 mesoderm 1, 2 messenger RNA 1, 2 metastasis 1, 2 methane 1 methionine 1 methylation 1 MHC 1 mice growing old 1, 2 melanoma p53 1 cloned 1 organ development 1 stem cells 1 micro-RNA 1, 2, three, four microscopes 1, microtubules 1, 2, three, four glucose delivery 1 mitosis 1 circulation 1 migraine 1 Miller, Stanley 1 Mitchell, Peter 1 mitochondria 1, 2, three, four ATP 1, 2 evolution 1 reactive oxygen 1 replication 1 mitosis 1, 2, three, four, five mitotic spindle 1 molecules, synthesis of one, 2 Morgan, Thomas Hunt 1 morphogenesis 1 mortality, within the wild 1 mosquitos 1 motor nerves 1, 2, habituation 1 tetanus 1 motor proteins 1, 2 mucus 1, 2, three, four a number of sclerosis 1, 2, three, four multipotent cells 1 muscle groups 1, 2, three, four, five, 6, 7 contractions 1, tradition 1 improvement 1, mesoderm 1, stem cells 1 muscular dystrophy 1, 2, three, four mutations 1, 2, three, four, five antenna to leg 1, 2 evolution 1, human genome 1 discomfort 1, myosin 1, 2, three, four nationwide Institutes of health and wellbeing (USA) 1 common choice 1, 2, three nausea 1, 2 nematode malicious program 1 nerve cells 1, 2, three, four, five loss of life 1 improvement 1 diptheria 1 tradition 1 modifications 1 functionality 1, sensory 1 staining 1 stem 1 transplant 1, frightened procedure 1, 2 loss of life 1 improvement 1, 2, three rabies 1 Parkinson’s sickness 1 neural crest 1, 2 neural networks 1 neural tube 1, 2 neurodegenerative health problems 1 neurons 1, 2 neurotransmitters 1 melancholy 1 neutrophils 1 niches 1, 2, melanoma 1 evening imaginative and prescient 1 nitrogen 1, 2 nostril 1 colds 1 stem cells 1 nuclear membranes 1, 2 nuclei 1, 2, three discovery 1 mitosis 1 nucleic acids 1, 2, three foundation cellphone 1, 2 nucleotides, 1 DNA 1, 2 mutation 1, 2 weight problems 1, 2 diabetes 1 odours 1, 2 Okinawa (Japan), loss of life charges 1 oncogenes 1, 2 opportunistic infections 1 optic nerve 1, 2, three organ transplantation 1, 2 organs see person organs osmosis 1, 2 osteoarthritis 1 osteoblasts 1 osteoclasts 1 osteoporosis 1 ovaries 1, 2, three overeating 1 oxygen 1 anaemia 1 earliest cells 1 strength 1 reactive 1 purple blood cells 1 p53 gene 1, 2 ache 1, 2, three, four pancreas 1, 2, three, four pangene 1 pangenesis 1 paralysis 1 Parkinson’s illness 1, 2, three Pasteur, Louis 1 patenting, and cellphone biology 1 pathogens 1 patient-specific pluripotent stem cells 1 trend formation 1, 2 French flag analogy 1 peas, Mendel’s experiments on 1 Penfield, Wilder 1 penicillin 1 Penicillium fungus 1 Pepys, Samuel 1 peripheral fearful approach 1 phagocytosis 1, 2 phenylketonaria 1 phosphates 1 ATP 1, 2 protein keep an eye on 1, 2, three phosphorus 1 phosphorylation 1 picture pigments 1 photosynthesis 1 pituitary gland 1 placebo influence 1, 2, three placenta 1 plague (Black loss of life) 1 platelets 1, 2, three, four pluripotent stem cells 1, 2 pneumonia 1, 2, three polio 1 potassium 1 Prader-Willi syndrome 1, 2 preformationist doctrine 1 being pregnant 1, 2 untimely growing old 1 prions 1 progeria 1 growth zones 1 Prometheus fantasy 1 prostate 1 protein functionality, in egg or sperm 1 protein synthesis 1 diptheria 1 nerve 1, 2 protein transcription elements 1, 2, three proteins 1, 2, three, four, five, 6, 7 mobile cycle 1 differentiation 1 mutation 1 prion 1 signalling 1, synthesis 1 delivery 1 turnover 1 virus 1 see additionally enzymes protons 1 Prozac 1 psoriasis 1 puberty 1, 2, three, four, Werner syndrome 1 purinergic signalling 1 qi power 1 rabies 1 radiation 1, 2, three, four radioactivity 1 Raspail, Jean-François 1, 2 receptors 1, 2, three purple blood cells 1, 2, three, four, five, 6, 7 reflexes 1, 2 regeneration 1, 2, three regenerative medication 1, 2, three non secular objections, to advances in phone biology 1, 2 Remak, Robert 1 replication, of cells 1, 2 respiration method 1, 2, three retina 1, 2, three, four retinoic acid 1 retroviruses 1 rheumatic fever 1 rheumatoid arthritis 1, 2, three ribosomes 1, 2, three ribozymes 1 ribs 1 Rifkin, Jeremy 1 RNA 1, 2, three, four virus 1, 2 rods 1, 2, three Roman Catholic Church 1 Romans 1 Royal Society of London 1 saliva 1 Sanger, Fred 1 scabs 1 scars 1 schizophrenia 1 Schleiden, Matthias 1 Schwann cells 1, 2 Schwann, Theodor 1 sea urchins 1, 2, three, four, five moment legislation of thermodynamics 1 choice see typical choice ‘selfish gene’ proposal 1 sensation, lack of 1 sensations through dermis 1 sensitisation 1 sensory cells 1 sensory reviews, early 1 sensory nerves 1, 2, three sequencing, DNA 1, 2, three, four, five serotonin 1, 2 intercourse chromosomes 1, 2 sexual differentiation 1, 2, three sexual replica 1, 2, three, four sexually transmitted illnesses 1 sheep, Dolly the 1 Shiatsu 1 non permanent reminiscence 1 sickle-cell affliction (sickle-cell anaemia) 1, 2, three, four, five sight 1, 2, three signalling, among cells 1, 2, three nerve 1 single-cell organisms 1, 2, three skeletal muscular tissues 1, 2 epidermis 1, 2, three ectoderm 1 sensory 1 wound 1, 2 mast cells 1 virus 1 epidermis melanoma 1, 2, three pores and skin grafts 1 sleep 1 slumbering illness (trypanosomiasis) 1 scent 1, 2 delicate muscle 1, 2 sneezing 1 sodium 1, 2, nerve impulse 1 ache 1 sodium pump 1, 2 somites 1, 2, three, four Sonic hedgehog gene 1, 2, three, four, five sound 1 spatial abilities 1 sperm 1, 2, three, four, five, 6 imprinting 1 IVF 1, intercourse 1 spinal wire 1, 2, three improvement 1, 2, three spindle 1, 2, three spleen 1, 2, three sponge eggs 1 stem cells 1, 2, three embryonic 1 nerve 1 development plate 1 melanoma 1 belly ulcers 1 stretch reflex 1 stroke 1, 2 sugars 1, 2, three insulin 1 swelling, and irritation 1 synapses 1, 2, three, four, five syphilis 1 T-helper cells 1, 2 T lymphocytes (T cells) 1, 2 flavor 1 TB (tuberculosis) 1, 2 tears 1 the teeth 1 telomerase 1, 2 telomeres 1, 2, three, four temperature 1, 2, three, four tendons 1 teratocarcinomas 1 terminal cells 1, 2 terminator 1 testis 1, 2 hormone 1, stem cells 1 testosterone 1, 2, three tetanus 1 thalassaemias 1 thalidomide 1 Thomas, Lewis, The Medusa and the Snail 1 Thompson, Adrian 1 notion 1, 2 thrombi 1, 2 thymine 1 thymus 1, 2, three until, James 1 time, and physically functionality 1 tissue donation 1 Tithonus fantasy 1 tongue 1, 2 contact 1, 2, three transcription 1, 2, three, four elements 1, 2 move RNAs 1 transplants 1 trauma 1 trypanosome 1 trypanosomiasis (sleeping illness) 1, 2 tsetse flies 1 tuberculosis (TB) 1, 2 tubules 1, 2 tumours stem cells 1 see melanoma Turing, Alan 1 Turner syndrome 1 twins 1, 2, three, four sort 1 diabetes 1, 2, three sort 2 diabetes 1 tyrosine 1 ulcers, abdominal 1 ultraviolet gentle 1 uracil 1 Urey, Harold 1 urinary tract 1, 2 uterus 1 V gene segments 1 vaccination 1, 2 vagina 1 vascular procedure 1, 2 see additionally arteries; blood vessels; veins veins 1, 2, three Venter, Craig 1 vertebrae 1 vesicles 1, 2, three, four, five violence 1 viral proteins 1 Virchow, Rudolph 1 viruses 1, 2, three, four AIDS 1 melanoma 1 immune reaction 1, 2 infections 1 imaginative and prescient 1, 2, three ‘vital strength’ 1, 2 nutrients 1 waste items 1, 2 Watson, J.

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