Linux Server Hacks: 100 Industrial-Strength Tips and Tools

By Rob Flickenger

A useful method administrator is familiar with Linux server is a excessive functionality approach for routing quite a lot of info via a community connection. constructing and protecting a Linux server calls for realizing not just the undefined, however the bits and bobs of the Linux working process in addition to its aiding solid of utilities in addition to layers of functions software program. there is uncomplicated documentation on-line yet there is a lot past the fundamentals you need to understand, and this purely comes from individuals with hands-on, real-world adventure. this type of "know how" is what we sought to catch in Linux Server Hacks.Linux Server Hacks is a set of a hundred industrial-strength hacks, delivering advice and instruments that clear up useful difficulties for Linux method directors. each hack could be learn in exactly a couple of minutes yet will keep hours of attempting to find the correct resolution. a few of the hacks are sophisticated, a lot of them are non-obvious, and them all exhibit the facility and suppleness of a Linux procedure. you will discover hacks dedicated to tuning the Linux kernel to make your procedure run extra successfully, in addition to utilizing CVS or RCS to trace the revision to procedure records. you are going to examine other ways to do backups, how you can use process tracking instruments to trace method functionality and quite a few safe networking suggestions. Linux Server Hacks additionally is helping you deal with large-scale net installations operating Apache, MySQL, and different open resource instruments which are normally a part of a Linux system.O'Reilly's new Hacks sequence proudly reclaims the time period "hacking" for the great men. Hackers use their ingenuity to resolve fascinating difficulties. Rob Flickenger is an skilled process administrator, having controlled the platforms for O'Reilly community for numerous years. (He's additionally into group instant networking and he is written a ebook on that topic for O'Reilly.) Rob has additionally accrued the simplest rules and instruments from a few different hugely expert contributors.Written for clients who already comprehend the fundamentals, Linux Server Hacks is outfitted upon the services of people that rather understand what they are doing.

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7): (The 1600 ports scanned yet no longer proven lower than are in country: closed) Port kingdom provider 22/tcp open ssh distant working method bet: Mac OS X 10. 1 - 10. 1. four Uptime five. 760 days (since Tue Sep three 19:14:36 2002) Nmap run accomplished -- 1 IP deal with (1 host up) scanned in 31 seconds If you’d prefer to nmap all of your community and feature a little bit time to kill, you could specify a community and subnet at the command line. This plays a TCP SYN test and fingerprinting for the 1st sixty four addresses of 10. forty two. four. zero: root@catlin:~# nmap -OsS 10. forty two. four. 0/26 for the reason that nmap prints to STDOUT, it can save you the output of a test run and examine it opposed to past runs for a differential document, particularly simply. We’ll run an yule tree test and grep out a number of strains (like the run time) to get rid of fake positives: root@catlin:~# nmap -sX 10. forty two. four. 0/26 | egrep -v '^(Nmap|Starting)' \ > nmap. output Let’s run a similar command back (say, day after today, at a random hour): root@catlin:~# nmap -sX localhost | egrep -v '^(Nmap|Starting)' \ > nmap. output2 and let’s do a context diff to determine what replaced: root@catlin:~# diff -c nmap. output* *** nmap. output Mon Sep nine 14:45:06 2002 --- nmap. output2 Mon Sep nine 14:45:21 2002 *************** *** 1,7 **** attention-grabbing ports on catlin. rob. nocat (10. forty two. four. 6): ! (The 1598 ports scanned yet now not proven lower than are in country: closed) Port nation carrier 22/tcp open ssh 53/tcp open area 80/tcp open http --- 1,8 ---- fascinating ports on catlin. rob. nocat (10. forty two. four. 6): ! (The 1597 ports scanned yet now not proven less than are in country: closed) Port country carrier + 21/tcp open ftp 22/tcp open ssh 53/tcp open area 80/tcp open http root@catlin:~# interesting. It seems like catlin has picked up an ftp server at some point soon. this system will locate new (and lifeless) hosts and prone at any time when it truly is run. through maintaining an archive of nmap output (perhaps logged to time and date encoded documents, or maybe to a database) you could maintain a log of the country of all machines in your community. Turning it right into a shell script and working it from cron is left as an workout (a expectantly enjoyable, and positively priceless workout) for the reader. See additionally: nmap’s domestic: http://www. insecure. org/nmap/ Disk Age research simply establish which elements of your disk swap usually how are you going to quick inform which components of your filesystem are converted often and which haven’t replaced in months? It’s very trouble-free, with a formal program of Perl. here's a Perl script that would practice disk getting older research on a filesystem. this system breaks down disk house methods, by means of final converted date and final accessed date. A pattern run appears like: % diskage /usr/local Disk getting older research for /usr/local: final num final num Age (days) changed records accessed records zero - 30 260403 Kb 817 140303 Kb 6968 31 - 60 11789 Kb 226 23140 Kb 199 sixty one - ninety 40168 Kb 1126 1087585 Kb 31625 ninety one - one hundred eighty 118927 Kb 995 zero Kb zero 181 - 365 85005 Kb 1889 zero Kb zero 366 - 9999 734735 Kb 33739 zero Kb zero ----------- ----- ----------- ----- overall 1251029 Kb 38792 1251029 Kb 38792 you could run the script with the -v choice to record the final converted and final accessed days for each dossier within the filesystem.

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